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Training of Sportsperson for participation in competitive sports has set a very high standard in the past two decades. Due to scientific advancement and research, a new era has emerged in training the elite sportspersons for national and international competitions. Training the elite sportsperson for major competition is a challenging job and encompass several factors which are to be taken into consideration in meeting the needs of the sportsperson from diet, equipments, goal setting, training load, build up and exposure competitions, recovery, relaxation, psyching up and ultimately participation in completions for which training is imparted.

To achieve high level performance many years of uninterrupted, scientific and systematic training is required under the watchful supervision of an expert coach and assisted by proper scientific backup. (Haree, 1982)

The very purpose of training for competitive sports is to achieve high performance, to make a mark and to win in the national and international competition. Participation in competition is an ultimate aim of training and it has great significance in shaping the performance of the sportsperson and personality as a whole.

Performance improvement is not seen only terms of improvement in skills, tactics and abilities, but should also be seen in terms of improvement in mental and intellectual factors too. Any respite in the development of mental and intellectual factors, create an imbalance in the development and affects the performance as a whole.

Participation in competition is an acid test for sportsperson and coach. The result shown in the competition is the outcome of training which ought to be evaluated. In training only competition like situation can be created and movements which usually occur in the competition are drilled. The real test of excellence is seen only in competition.

Participations in competitions help in many ways.

1. Selection and use of correct techniques and tactics which are applied.
2. Correct application speed, force which is required to perform during the course of the game,
3. Control of emotion, excitement, development of self control, will power and fighting spirit.
4. Team combination and under standing.
5. Ability to adapt to different situations and above all level of fitness.
One or two competitions are not sufficient to achieve all the required abilities. Many competitions are required to achieve the peak performance through many periodic cycles.

The very purpose of annual periodization is to maximize the sports performance by manipulating the different training variables. In each phase of periodization maximizing the performance is crucial. Sportsman should be assisted in giving his best performance in a chosen competition in that particular phase of the annual plan.

A coach has to decide at the beginning of the season, the number of competitions that are important for participation and the main competition in which the peak is to be reached. Before the main competition few build up competitions is of great significance. Build up competitions are of immense importance and are decisive during the competition period. Several build up competitions before the main competition

supports in the improvement and stabilization of performance. There is problem in determining the frequency of competitions that are required to optimize the performance. Participation in too many competitions negates the effective performance due to fatigue and over training. A balance is to be arrived taking into consideration the ability, training age, load tolerance capacity and maturity of the sportspersons.

Analysis of performance in competition serves as a feed back and in comparing the goal set and goal achieved. Depending upon the performance achievement deficiencies are to be addressed and training programme are to be altered as per the need. Built up competitions are arranged against teams of same level or of higher level.

Different tactics and strategies are planned meticulously and are carried out to see the outcome. Participation in competitions should influence the over all performance of the players. A competition in a sense is training to reach the high level performance and has a great role to learn several aspects of performance enhancing factors.

Greater care and attention is needed while planning for major competition. Correct training intensity, volume and recovery set the stage for top performance. As the competition gets closer the training becomes more specific and intensity of training load increases and volume decreases.

Sportsman is unable to maintain peak level of performance during competition period for a prolonged period to time without fatigue. It is essential to regulate and monitor the training load for better physiological adaptation.(Joy Hoffman, 2002). Periodical monitoring of the performance of the sportsman during preparatory and competition period provides direction of attainment of goal set.

It is obvious if the gap between two competitions is of several weeks, it is very difficult to sustain very high load over a period of time. As a rule there should be an unloading period during which the training intensity is reduced for few days and gradual increase of load is recommended.

If the gap between two competitions is two - three week an unloading (low intensity work outs) period of 2 - 3 days after a completion is planned which serves as recovery from physical and mental load, nevertheless the recovery should be active and not passive.

As per training experts, immediate preparation for the competition requires four to six weeks of intensive training. Before training, it is good to assess the training condition of the sportsmen. It is to be decided by the coach whether to maintain the performance which was achieved in the previous training cycle or to develop it.

As said earlier this six weeks of training is planned with an unloading period followed by high intensity training. The training is more specific and major problems if any are to be addressed. Last week of training is to be carefully organized as to avoid exhaustion. Sportsman should be fresh before participation in the competition.

It is only the outline that has been mentioned in the above paragraph. Taking into physique, individual ability, training age, level of competition and other factors coach has to plan for competition so that the individual and the team can give the best in the competition


Kho-kho is a team game of speed, stamina, endurance, strength and skill. Although it is a team event, individual fitness plays a vital roll in the success of the team. Many a times, it is a missing link of the team. During the practice, of course for winning matches, players must plan for individual fitness as well as team fitness. The individual fitness will be tailor made to meet the need of each individual separately, to suit his/her physique. Fitness consists of four parts namely 1) Physical Fitness, 2) Mental Fitness, 3) Social Fitness and 4) Spiritual Fitness. It also can be thought in terms of short time/temporary fitness and Long time/permanent fitness.
Kho-kho is a team game of speed, stamina, endurance, strength and skill. Although it is a team event, individual fitness plays a vital roll in the success of the team. Many a times, it is a missing link of the team. During the practice, of course for winning matches, players must plan for individual fitness as well as team fitness. The individual fitness will be tailor made to meet the need of each individual separately, to suit his/her physique. Fitness consists of four parts namely 1) Physical Fitness, 2) Mental Fitness, 3) Social Fitness and 4) Spiritual Fitness. It also can be thought in terms of short time/temporary fitness and Long time/permanent fitness.
Advantages of the fitness building -
  1. Improvement and consistency in performance.
  2. Increases the ability to acquire new skills.
  3. Prevents Injuries.
  4. Gives confidence and moral strength which helps player to take spontaneous decisions at the critical moments.
  5. Ensures least psychological trauma during failures and/or mistakes.
  6. Helps in reaching higher goals.
  7. The palyer is mentally prepared to face the opposite factors, beyond ones control, boldly and bravely.
  8. Thinks positively for the success under any situation, applying skills of the game and all round fitness.

Different ways of increasing fitness -
  1. Speed ----
    1. Athletic Sprints
    2. Practices of outbursts
    3. Starts of 100 meters running
  1. Stamina building ----
    1. Long distance ground running
    2. Starts of 100 meters running
  1. Endurance----(Toughness)
    1. Hill climbing
    2. Skipping
    3. Longer sessions of Khokho innings than what rules stipulate
  1. Strength ----
    1. Weight training
    2. Gymnastic practice

Rest and relaxation are equally important factors in maintaining fitness.
A player should have a sound sleep of 6-7 hours every day.
Swimming and playing games like football and basketball in between hectic practice sessions can be a good relaxation to players.
Pranayam and yogasanas can add to the suppleness of the body and enhance cardiorespiratory fitness of the players. Also, it helps to concentrate player's mind which is a vital factor for their success.
 Healthy Life Style -
Unless a player puts its soul in the game, maximum output in terms of success is difficult. The essential condition for this is to have a very healthy life style. It consists of -
  1. Life without any vices.
  2. Nourishing diet.
  3. Regular sleeping habits.
  4. Value based thinking.
  5. Positive thinking.
  6. Faith in God.
  7. Soul consciousness (Self confidence?)
  8. Love and respect for friends and teachers.
  9. Say 'No' to drugs for better performance.
  10. Medication under medical supervision.

 Prevention of injuries and illnesses though fitness is achieved through -
  1. Adequate warming up.
  2. Appropriate preventive measures, devices.
  3. Proper training for new skills.
  4. Building match temperament consisting of self confidence, killing instinct leading to Winning in the game.
  5. Truthfulness, even in difficult times, integrity and sportsman spirit, helping all the players.
  6. Don't play without practice.
  7. Planning of tactics on individual and team level is useful for the sommthness in the game.
  8. Play only under worthy playing conditions like good ground, weather, etc.
  9. Meditation always helps.
  10. Preventive and curative medication whenever required.

Mental Fitness -

Meditation (sitting in silence), Yoga, 'Pranayam', Positive thinking, etc. help to maintain the mental fitness of a player. The aspect of mental fitness should find a place in training and coaching programme.
It gives self confidence to a player and helps him concentrate to achieve the ultimate goal. These practices difinitely lower the physical and mental stress. Tension free mental state leads to better performance. Good mental state is reflected in the co-operative nature of a player. Such a player would be having team spirit, sportsman spirit. He would always help in keeping the decorum of the sports atmosphere in the game. All these qualities would be seen without any compromise with the basic aim of winning.

Social Fitness -
It is seen in the off the ground behaviour of the players with colleagues and opponents can create healthy atmosphere. Such an atmosphere is the basic requirement to trigger the sportsman spirit among all the participants in the event.
Spiritual Fitness -

Soul consciousness leads to self respect, self confidence and positive thinking. However, these qualities necessarily need not make one successful. Every soul is a part of the same supreme soul (The God). Therefore, every one should have a realization of supreme soul consciousness. His are the ultimate decisions. Hence, always keep him with you, anywhere, anytime. Nay, be always on His side, anywhere, anytime.

For Winning a Tournament (Trophy) -
It is always important to keep in mind three important aspects for the success.
1) Know thyself, externally and internally.
2) Know fully thy enemy, its abilities, strengths and weaknesses.
3) Know Almighty God who makes the final decision.

In a plan of coaching schedule and practice sessions, whether a long term or short term, time should be allotted to all the above mentioned points for the fitness. Fitness is a multifactor subject. It needs the help from the people from many disciplines. Therefore, skillful management of a coach/manager of the team to organize all these aspects can lead the team to achieve the final goal. Another important aspect is to learn from previous experience. Retrospection and introspection, both the factors are important. These may give a coach an insight about the present status of his/her team's performance. For the future developments of the team, a tip is, 'Awareness and constant endeavor to change is the spice of life'.


Two teams each of 15 players. 9 from 12 named for a match take field. Players are numbered 1 to 15 (height 10 cms in front and 20 cms on back with 2 cms width). Change of numbers is not allowed during a tournament.

Players of the team who sit in the Squares to chase the opponent team, with shoulder line parallel to the Central Lane, alternately fact the 29 mtrs./24 mtrs. long boundary lines. Actual pursuer is the Attacker.

Players of the team, who defend against chasing

Runners, who actually come inside the limits in a batch of three.

Allowed at the discretion of Referee on request of captain.