Thursday, November 24, 2011

How to Playing Kho Kho: My Kho Kho National In Goa

How to Playing Kho Kho: My Kho Kho National In Goa

kho kho game photos

Kho kho Game Photos

My Kho Kho National In Goa

Planning for Competition

Training of Sportsperson for participation in competitive sports has set a very high standard in the past two decades. Due to scientific advancement and research, a new era has emerged in training the elite sportspersons for national and international competitions. Training the elite sportsperson for major competition is a challenging job and encompass several factors which are to be taken into consideration in meeting the needs of the sportsperson from diet, equipments, goal setting, training load, build up and exposure competitions, recovery, relaxation, psyching up and ultimately participation in completions for which training is imparted.

To achieve high level performance many years of uninterrupted, scientific and systematic training is required under the watchful supervision of an expert coach and assisted by proper scientific backup. (Haree, 1982)

The very purpose of training for competitive sports is to achieve high performance, to make a mark and to win in the national and international competition. Participation in competition is an ultimate aim of training and it has great significance in shaping the performance of the sportsperson and personality as a whole.

Performance improvement is not seen only terms of improvement in skills, tactics and abilities, but should also be seen in terms of improvement in mental and intellectual factors too. Any respite in the development of mental and intellectual factors, create an imbalance in the development and affects the performance as a whole.

Participation in competition is an acid test for sportsperson and coach. The result shown in the competition is the outcome of training which ought to be evaluated. In training only competition like situation can be created and movements which usually occur in the competition are drilled. The real test of excellence is seen only in competition.

Participations in competitions help in many ways.

1. Selection and use of correct techniques and tactics which are applied.
2. Correct application speed, force which is required to perform during the course of the game,
3. Control of emotion, excitement, development of self control, will power and fighting spirit.
4. Team combination and under standing.
5. Ability to adapt to different situations and above all level of fitness.
One or two competitions are not sufficient to achieve all the required abilities. Many competitions are required to achieve the peak performance through many periodic cycles.

The very purpose of annual periodization is to maximize the sports performance by manipulating the different training variables. In each phase of periodization maximizing the performance is crucial. Sportsman should be assisted in giving his best performance in a chosen competition in that particular phase of the annual plan.

A coach has to decide at the beginning of the season, the number of competitions that are important for participation and the main competition in which the peak is to be reached. Before the main competition few build up competitions is of great significance. Build up competitions are of immense importance and are decisive during the competition period. Several build up competitions before the main competition

supports in the improvement and stabilization of performance. There is problem in determining the frequency of competitions that are required to optimize the performance. Participation in too many competitions negates the effective performance due to fatigue and over training. A balance is to be arrived taking into consideration the ability, training age, load tolerance capacity and maturity of the sportspersons.

Analysis of performance in competition serves as a feed back and in comparing the goal set and goal achieved. Depending upon the performance achievement deficiencies are to be addressed and training programme are to be altered as per the need. Built up competitions are arranged against teams of same level or of higher level.

Different tactics and strategies are planned meticulously and are carried out to see the outcome. Participation in competitions should influence the over all performance of the players. A competition in a sense is training to reach the high level performance and has a great role to learn several aspects of performance enhancing factors.

Greater care and attention is needed while planning for major competition. Correct training intensity, volume and recovery set the stage for top performance. As the competition gets closer the training becomes more specific and intensity of training load increases and volume decreases.

Sportsman is unable to maintain peak level of performance during competition period for a prolonged period to time without fatigue. It is essential to regulate and monitor the training load for better physiological adaptation.(Joy Hoffman, 2002). Periodical monitoring of the performance of the sportsman during preparatory and competition period provides direction of attainment of goal set.

It is obvious if the gap between two competitions is of several weeks, it is very difficult to sustain very high load over a period of time. As a rule there should be an unloading period during which the training intensity is reduced for few days and gradual increase of load is recommended.

If the gap between two competitions is two - three week an unloading (low intensity work outs) period of 2 - 3 days after a completion is planned which serves as recovery from physical and mental load, nevertheless the recovery should be active and not passive.

As per training experts, immediate preparation for the competition requires four to six weeks of intensive training. Before training, it is good to assess the training condition of the sportsmen. It is to be decided by the coach whether to maintain the performance which was achieved in the previous training cycle or to develop it.

As said earlier this six weeks of training is planned with an unloading period followed by high intensity training. The training is more specific and major problems if any are to be addressed. Last week of training is to be carefully organized as to avoid exhaustion. Sportsman should be fresh before participation in the competition.

It is only the outline that has been mentioned in the above paragraph. Taking into physique, individual ability, training age, level of competition and other factors coach has to plan for competition so that the individual and the team can give the best in the competition

Fitness For Kho kho

Kho-kho is a team game of speed, stamina, endurance, strength and skill. Although it is a team event, individual fitness plays a vital roll in the success of the team. Many a times, it is a missing link of the team. During the practice, of course for winning matches, players must plan for individual fitness as well as team fitness. The individual fitness will be tailor made to meet the need of each individual separately, to suit his/her physique. Fitness consists of four parts namely 1) Physical Fitness, 2) Mental Fitness, 3) Social Fitness and 4) Spiritual Fitness. It also can be thought in terms of short time/temporary fitness and Long time/permanent fitness.
Kho-kho is a team game of speed, stamina, endurance, strength and skill. Although it is a team event, individual fitness plays a vital roll in the success of the team. Many a times, it is a missing link of the team. During the practice, of course for winning matches, players must plan for individual fitness as well as team fitness. The individual fitness will be tailor made to meet the need of each individual separately, to suit his/her physique. Fitness consists of four parts namely 1) Physical Fitness, 2) Mental Fitness, 3) Social Fitness and 4) Spiritual Fitness. It also can be thought in terms of short time/temporary fitness and Long time/permanent fitness.
Advantages of the fitness building -
  1. Improvement and consistency in performance.
  2. Increases the ability to acquire new skills.
  3. Prevents Injuries.
  4. Gives confidence and moral strength which helps player to take spontaneous decisions at the critical moments.
  5. Ensures least psychological trauma during failures and/or mistakes.
  6. Helps in reaching higher goals.
  7. The palyer is mentally prepared to face the opposite factors, beyond ones control, boldly and bravely.
  8. Thinks positively for the success under any situation, applying skills of the game and all round fitness.

Different ways of increasing fitness -
  1. Speed ----
    1. Athletic Sprints
    2. Practices of outbursts
    3. Starts of 100 meters running
  1. Stamina building ----
    1. Long distance ground running
    2. Starts of 100 meters running
  1. Endurance----(Toughness)
    1. Hill climbing
    2. Skipping
    3. Longer sessions of Khokho innings than what rules stipulate
  1. Strength ----
    1. Weight training
    2. Gymnastic practice

Rest and relaxation are equally important factors in maintaining fitness.
A player should have a sound sleep of 6-7 hours every day.
Swimming and playing games like football and basketball in between hectic practice sessions can be a good relaxation to players.
Pranayam and yogasanas can add to the suppleness of the body and enhance cardiorespiratory fitness of the players. Also, it helps to concentrate player's mind which is a vital factor for their success.
 Healthy Life Style -
Unless a player puts its soul in the game, maximum output in terms of success is difficult. The essential condition for this is to have a very healthy life style. It consists of -
  1. Life without any vices.
  2. Nourishing diet.
  3. Regular sleeping habits.
  4. Value based thinking.
  5. Positive thinking.
  6. Faith in God.
  7. Soul consciousness (Self confidence?)
  8. Love and respect for friends and teachers.
  9. Say 'No' to drugs for better performance.
  10. Medication under medical supervision.

 Prevention of injuries and illnesses though fitness is achieved through -
  1. Adequate warming up.
  2. Appropriate preventive measures, devices.
  3. Proper training for new skills.
  4. Building match temperament consisting of self confidence, killing instinct leading to Winning in the game.
  5. Truthfulness, even in difficult times, integrity and sportsman spirit, helping all the players.
  6. Don't play without practice.
  7. Planning of tactics on individual and team level is useful for the sommthness in the game.
  8. Play only under worthy playing conditions like good ground, weather, etc.
  9. Meditation always helps.
  10. Preventive and curative medication whenever required.

Mental Fitness -

Meditation (sitting in silence), Yoga, 'Pranayam', Positive thinking, etc. help to maintain the mental fitness of a player. The aspect of mental fitness should find a place in training and coaching programme.
It gives self confidence to a player and helps him concentrate to achieve the ultimate goal. These practices difinitely lower the physical and mental stress. Tension free mental state leads to better performance. Good mental state is reflected in the co-operative nature of a player. Such a player would be having team spirit, sportsman spirit. He would always help in keeping the decorum of the sports atmosphere in the game. All these qualities would be seen without any compromise with the basic aim of winning.

Social Fitness -
It is seen in the off the ground behaviour of the players with colleagues and opponents can create healthy atmosphere. Such an atmosphere is the basic requirement to trigger the sportsman spirit among all the participants in the event.
Spiritual Fitness -

Soul consciousness leads to self respect, self confidence and positive thinking. However, these qualities necessarily need not make one successful. Every soul is a part of the same supreme soul (The God). Therefore, every one should have a realization of supreme soul consciousness. His are the ultimate decisions. Hence, always keep him with you, anywhere, anytime. Nay, be always on His side, anywhere, anytime.

For Winning a Tournament (Trophy) -
It is always important to keep in mind three important aspects for the success.
1) Know thyself, externally and internally.
2) Know fully thy enemy, its abilities, strengths and weaknesses.
3) Know Almighty God who makes the final decision.

In a plan of coaching schedule and practice sessions, whether a long term or short term, time should be allotted to all the above mentioned points for the fitness. Fitness is a multifactor subject. It needs the help from the people from many disciplines. Therefore, skillful management of a coach/manager of the team to organize all these aspects can lead the team to achieve the final goal. Another important aspect is to learn from previous experience. Retrospection and introspection, both the factors are important. These may give a coach an insight about the present status of his/her team's performance. For the future developments of the team, a tip is, 'Awareness and constant endeavor to change is the spice of life'.


Two teams each of 15 players. 9 from 12 named for a match take field. Players are numbered 1 to 15 (height 10 cms in front and 20 cms on back with 2 cms width). Change of numbers is not allowed during a tournament.
Players of the team who sit in the Squares to chase the opponent team, with shoulder line parallel to the Central Lane, alternately fact the 29 mtrs./24 mtrs. long boundary lines. Actual pursuer is the Attacker.

Players of the team, who defend against chasing

Runners, who actually come inside the limits in a batch of three.

Allowed at the discretion of Referee on request of captain. 



Appointed by competent authority.
A match, to be judged, requires :

Generally supervises the conduct of the play, helps Umpires, synchronizes his watch with the watch of Time Keeper, checks time and score, announces scores and has right to penalize defaulting player of team. Declares result of the match.

Control the course of the play in their own half in general by moving in the lobby. Declare judgement on 'put out', compel the active chaser to act upto the rules, get foul corrected, help the other umpire in discharge of duties.

Keeps time of turn. Starts and closes the turn of a match. Declares the completion of each minute by raising his arm.

Take down the order of the defenders. Record the points scored by the chasers. Complete the score sheet and hand over it to the referee to declare to points scored and the result of the match.

. Responsibility is shared by other officials for a turn, if after the start of the match an official is unable to work. 



Consists of two innings. An inning consists of chasing and running turns of 9 minutes each. An interval of 9 minutes after an inning and of 5 minutes in between the turns is given. 
Indicated by the Time Keeper by blowing 'one long followed by one short' blast of whistle.

Declared by the Time Keeper by blowing a 'long' blast of whistle.

Side that chases out more opponents scores a win. Teams do not leave the ground till the result is announced.

TIE : Points are shared in a league match.

The Minimum Chase Method is adopted if a knock-out match ends in a tie after an extra inning (i.e. Third inning) The Minimum chase Method means breaking tie in 'Knock out' match by noting the time to put out the first defender in the fourth inning and further innings, if need be. The minimum time needed to put out a defender entitles a team to win.

Incomplete match for any reason is continuted further with finished turns and same players in the same session.
Played from begining in other session freshly, even with a new set of 12 players.

The Game

Inside are some of the salient features of the game to enable you to appreciate and understand it. The game of Kho-kho basded on natural principles of Physical and Mental developdment, is vigorous and fosters a healthy combative spirit among the youth.
It is not merely after running but ‘Chess’ meaning thereby to try to overtake, to attempt, to catch by pursue. It calls for physical fitness of a high order, agility, speed, stamina endurence, flexibility, presence of mind and a strong purposeful determination in a player.It also helps to increase the power of Decision-making, Dodging, Feinting and controlled sprinting makes the game exciting and interesting to watch.

In sort, the game of ‘Kho-kho’ gives to the player the real JOY OF EFFORTS, well and truly made, and to those who watch it, the thrill and satisfaction of having enjoyed fine sport. The play is governed by specific rules of the game approved by the ASIAN KHO-KHO FEDERATION.
Unique outstanding features that catch the eyes are :


A good levelled field, admeasuring 29 mtrs. x 16 mtrs. with a 1.5 mtrs. lobby on all sides is required.

Two smooth, straight, round Wooden posts (diameter between 9 to 10 cms) without any sharp edges and a flat top fixed firmly in FREE ZONES at a distance of 23.5 mtrs. apart to which line of post is a tangent at midpoint, must be 120 cms. above the ground level.

The field has two Rectangles (16 x 2.75 mtrs.) beyoud the 'line of post' and eight rectangles (16 x 03 mtrs.) with a centre distance of 2.55 m in between the two adjacent ones, called 'Cross Lanes'. The Cross Lanes intersect at right angle a 'Central Lane' (23.5 x 0.3 mtrs) running between the posts. The Line of Post is 2.65 m from the centre of the adjacent Cross Lane.

The intersection of Cross Lane with Central Lane makes a Square (30 x 30 Cms). 'Waiting Block' is an area beyond the End Lines and behind the freezones for Runners and reserves 1 mtr. wide outside the lobby.

The measurements of the field for sub-junior group are different and are shown in the figure. ENTRY ZONES are marked upto 3rd Cross Lane along the side Line near Scorer-1. for Runners to enter in the field.

The width of the lines is 3 cms. The dimensions are measured from edge to edge and therefore include the width of the lines.

Rules of the game

  • The play ground shall be marked as shown in the drawing in last part DEFINITIONS.
  • Referee shall call of both the captains for the spin of the coin (TOSS). He shall instruct one of them to call the choice of the side of the coin. He shall then declare the winner of the TOSS.
    Referee shall stand at the centre of the court facing the scoring table with captains with either side
  • The winner of the toss will raise his arm and indicate immediately by his/her index finger either the central lane or the side line for the option of chasing or defence. No captain shall touch the coin. Any eight chasers shall occupy the squares facing the side lanes in such a way that no adjacent chasers face the same side line.

    The ninth chaser shall stand in either of the free zones to start the chase. At the commencement of the turn, the first batch of three defenders shall be inside the limits (field) and the remaining runners shall occupy the seats meant for them.

    After the defender is out, he/she shall occupy the seat meant for him/her. After the commencement of the turn, no chaser shall leave the square without getting KHO or change the face. If he/she does so, it is a foul and repetition of the same will amount to misbehavior.
  • An attacker, as a rule, shall not cross the central lane to go to the other half of the court or to the free zone. Crossing/touching the central lane by any part of the body except note is an offence. It shall be treated as foul. Note: If an attacker while chasing crosses/touches that line of the central lane which lies on the side of his/her chasing half, the foul shall not be declared. However, if the attacker while touching or at the time of touching defender or as a result of the action of putting out a defender, does it, foul shall be declared and defender will not be declared out.
  • If the KHO is to be given, it shall be given from behind a chaser. It shall be given in a sufficiently loud tone so that the defenders and the officials can hear. The chaser shall not get up without getting KHO.
    Note: A. An attacker shall not give KHO by touching the arm or the leg or any part of the body extended or tilled towards him by a chaser.
  • To give a KHO touching on the back of the chaser should not be insisted upon. After giving a KHO, an attacker shall cease to be so and shall sit down immediately in the square of the chaser to whom he has given a KHO. Note: A. after giving a perfect KHO, if the chaser while sitting loses the contact of the cross lane, it shall not be a foul. The natural time needed to sit on the square after giving KHO must be allowed. However, this should not obstruct the game of defender. If he/she does so, it should be declared as foul.
  • After getting a KHO, chaser will immediately be an attacker and shall go to the half that he/she is facing and shall go in the direction which he/she has taken by going beyond the cross lane or turning his/her shoulder towards any of the posts. An attacker shall take the direction according to one of the actions whichever he/she has performed first. Note: As long as any part of the foot of an attacker is touching the ground of a cross lane, he/she has not gone beyond that cross lane. Defender shall be declared 'out' if an attacker puts him out (touches him/her) before leaving the square without committing foul.
  • An attacker shall take the direction to which he/she turns his/her shoulder line. When an attacker, while going in a particular direction, turns his/her shoulder line through more than a right angle to the direction which he/she has already taken, it shall be a foul.
  • Once an attacker has taken a direction, he/she shall go in that direction till he/she reaches the free zone unless he/she gives a KHO before that. An attacker shall not go to the other half of the court unless he/she turns around the post through the free zone.
  • If an attacker leaves the free zone, he/she shall go in the direction of the other free zone, remaining on that half of the court where he/she was, when he/she left the free zone.
  • The rules about taking the direction and receding shall not be applicable in the free zone.
  • The chaser shall sit in a manner which shall not obstruct the defenders. If a defender becomes out by such an obstruction, he/she shall not be declared out.
    • If a chaser is found to be deliberately moving any part of his/her body which may obstruct a defender, he/she shall be warned by the officials and appropriate action will be taken.
    • The action of moving/tilting shoulder, thigh or any other part of the body towards a defender who is running near the central lane and closer to a chaser shall be treated as a foul.
  • During a turn, an attacker may go out of court but he/she shall observe all the rules about taking direction and receding even when he/she is out of court.

    The word 'court' is to be noted. Rules of court are applicable within the area covered by or between the extended post lines. Attacker will be allowed to enter the field/court as he wants, if he/she goes out of court beyond the extended post lines. He/she shall not be insisted to enter through the free>
  • A defender shall not touch a chaser. If he/she does so, he/she shall be warned once in a turn. If he/she repeats the same, he/she shall be declared out.
    Warning to the defender should be recorded in the 'remarks' column of the score sheet.
  • A defender shall be declared out if he/she is touched by a hand by an attacker without violating any rule or if he/she goes out of field. He/she shall be declared out by a short blow of whistle.
    • Deliberate pushing, catching, pulling even by uniform or hitting will be treated as misbehavior.
    • While chasing a defender, if an attacker pushes the same defender out of field, the defender shall not be declared out.
    • If a defender goes out of field he/she shall be declared out.
  • An attacker and chaser shall not violet any of the rules pertaining to them. It shall be a foul if any of the rules is violated.
    • If a defender is put out as a result of such a foul or a foul is committed immediately as a result of the action taken in putting a defender out, defender shall not be declared out. The protection from being out due to a foul is applicable to a defender who was being actually chased at the time of committing a foul.
    • At the time of 'Touching at the Post' (Pole Dive), dragging of rear leg and turning of shoulder line more than 90o will not be a foul but touching and/or crossing central lane by any part of the body will be a foul. In this case shoulder line foul should be ignored.
  • If an attacker violets any rules, the umpire shall declare a foul by blowing a short whistle continuously and shall compel the attacker to go in the direction opposite to that of which he is going. Immediately on hearing a signal given by the umpire by his whistle, the attacker shall go to the direction indicated by the umpire and if the defender is being chased at that time, thereby becomes out he shall not be declared out and the attacker shall have to follow the direction indicated by the umpire. He need not give KHO.
    If an attacker commits a foul of 'to recede' and continues his attack, as a result of attacker's action, defender goes out of the ground, he shall not be declared 'out'.
    The term 'as a result of action' implies that there should not be time lapse between foul and action. The action putting out a defender is supposed to be a continuation of action of foul or its follow through.
    If a foul committed by either attacker or chaser does not give any advantage whatsoever to the chasing side in their chase and disadvantage to the defenders, it shall not be declared by continuous short blasts of whistle.


The following officials shall be appointed for the management of the match, namely A REFEREE, two UMPIRES, a TIME KEEPER and two SCORERS.

. Each team will consist of a physiologist/doctor, manager, coach and fifteen players for international tournaments and twelve players for national level tournaments/competition. Twelve players will be named for a match; only nine players will take the fielding in the beginning.

. An inning will consist of chasing and defending turns which shall be of nine minutes each for MEN, WOMEN, BOYS & GIRLS (senior & junior). It shall be of seven minutes for SUB-JUNIOR/MINI. Each match will consist of two innings. There shall be an interval of nine minutes after an inning and five minutes break between turns for MEN, WOMEN, BOYS & GIRLS (senior & junior), for SUB-JUNIOR/MINI the same shall be of six minutes and three minutes respectively. 

At the beginning of the turn, three runners shall be inside the field for defence. Immediately on these three defenders being declared out, the next three runners shall be inside the field before two 'KHO's are given. Those runners who fail toenter within the period shall be declared out. The runners who may enter early shall not be declared out but called back.

Thus, the runners will continue to enter the field in the same batch till the end of turn. The attacker who has put out the third defender shall not chase the new batch. He shall give KHO. If he chases any of the new defenders, it shall be a foul. Each side shall enter its runners to the field from the portion marked for them in the lobby (Entry Zone)

. Time to enter the field (two correct KHOs) is given to runners. Hence defenders who are inside the field can be chased after 'one correct KHO' is given to chase a new batch. Two KHOs should not be insisted.

As soon as first defender of a batch is out, the next three runners must enter the Entry Zone.

Referee shall have an option to declare out runners of the next batch who have not entered the fields after two correct KHOs are given. An attacker shall not pursue a new batch after the last defender of a batch is out in whichever manner. He must give KHO. Runners who enter early shall be called back by scorer number two/referee.

. The captain of the chasing team shall have the option to end the turn before allowed time. He shall inform the referee about the same by raising his arm and request him/her to stop the turn. Until the referee had signaled to stop the turn, the turn is not closed. The chasing side shall not leave the squares until the referee has not declared the turn as closed.

» Defending side can also request the referee to close the turn of defence in the second innings provided the match is conceded as 'Defeated'. The referee can allow this if the difference in points scored by each party at that time is fifteen or more.

. The chasing side shall score one point for each defender out. If all the runners are out before the completion of the turn, they shall maintain the same order of defence. Order of the runners shall not be changed during a turn.

. In the knock out matches, the side that scores more points at the end of the match shall be declared winner. If the points are equal, one more inning (one turn for each side as chasers and runners) shall be played. If again the points are equal, an additional inning shall be played on minimum chase basis as follows: Referee will start the turn of this additional innings. As soon as first point is scored, the turn shall be closed by the referee. He shall stop the stop watch with him simultaneously. The time for scoring of this first point shall thus be noted. The side that takes less time to score this first point (minimum chase) shall be declared as winner of the match.( the referee shall stop the match if the time exceeded more than thirty seconds than the recorded time of the opponents). If needed, this process shall continue till the winner is decided.

In the league system, the winner shall score two points and looser shall score no points. In case of tie, both the sides shall score one point each. If there is tie, in the points scored in the group league, the concerned teams in the group will replay the match or matches with knock-out system, after drawing lot. But if it is not possible to conduct match/matches for some unavoidable circumstances, the match/matches can be played in minimum chase basis.

. If the match is not completed for any reason, it shall be continued further at another time, with the same players and same officials, provided it is played in the same session. The scores of the completed turns of each side shall be counted, the match being continued, from the beginning of incomplete turn. (The same nine players and officials will be there). If the incomplete match is not played in the same session, the entire match will be replayed from the beginning. In this case the players and officials need not be same.

Time for sessions will be as follows.

Morning - Sunrise to twelve noon.
Afternoon/evening - Twelve noon to end of the day.

Match started in one session and completed in the next session will be treated as played in the next session.

. After completion of first innings, if the points of the side (who chased first at the starting of the match) exceeds the points of other side by nine or more, former side shall have the option of requiring the latter side to follow on its turn as a chaser, without forfeiting its own right to take its turn as a chaser afterwards, in case the other side exceeds its score.


Option to give follow on is restricted upon nine points only.It will be mandatory to give follow on if the difference is more than nine points. In case of follow on the result will be won by "an innings"


» Any number of substitutions can be allowed by the referee on the request of coach or captain for chasing turn, at any time during the match.
»For runners, substitution is allowed only before they enter the field.
» During substitution, the substituted chaser shall not enter the field unless the outgoing chaser comes out of the field.
» Substituted attacker shall not pursue the defenders directly. He must give a KHO.

. If a defender is out, he shall return to the sitting place through the lobby, entering from the nearest end or the side line only.The teams will not leave the ground till the referee declares the results of the match.




. Players Uniform

Uniform of a KHOKHO player shall include sports/canvas shoes (free from any metal part anywhere that may cause injury), short and vest (half sleeves) or 'T'- shirt for men and boys, shirt or 'T'- shirt for women and girls. Each player shall be numbered in front and back of his/her 'T'-shirt/shirt with number in solid colour, contrasting with the colour of 'T'-shirt/shirt.

The number shall be printed / stitched of size 10cms. high and 2cms. width in the front and 20 cms high and 2cms. width on the back. Contravention of the rule using lesser size will be treated as misbehavior. The numbers shall be printed from 1 to 15. Players of the same side shall neither ware duplicate numbers nor change numbers during a tournament/championship (In case the need arises, referee will allow the change of chest numbers). Manager shall furnish scorer-1 the list of players and chest numbers.


» All players must know the rules of the game and abide by the rules.
» During the game, a player may address the referee only through the team captain. The team captain may address the referee and shall be the spokesman for his players. He may also address the other officials but only on matters concerning their duties.


The managers, coaches and substitutes shall sit in the place provided for them.

The following acts are punishable:
» Persistent addressing of officials concerning their decisions.
» Making derogatory remarks to officials.
» Committing actions tending to influence decisions of officials.
» Making derogatory acts or personal remarks to the opponents.
» Deliberate coaching during the game from outside the ground.
» Leaving the ground without the permission of referee during the match and before the declaration of the result.
» Referee shall take action according to the gravity of their offence.


» For a minor offence such as talking to opponents, spectator or official, shouting etc. a verbal warning will be given by the referee. In case of repetition of offence warning will be given by showing a Yellow card.
» For a serious offence, referee may disqualify the concerned players and others from rest of the match by showing a Red card.
If a player is shown Yellow card twice in a match, he shall be forbidden from participation in that match of the particular tournament and also in a next match of that particular tournament. If he is shown Yellow card in two different matches in a particular tournament, he shall be forbidden from the participation for next match of that particular tournament.

If a player is shown Red card in a match, he shall be forbidden from participation for the rest of the match and for next match also of that particular tournament. As mentioned in the rule 2, 3, 4, of part IV, the action (warning/Punishing) shall be taken by an umpire and/or referee.

The concerned official shall report the matter in writing to the proper authority (in charge of officials, observer, organizing secretary, convener/chairman/association, referee's board or secretory general of respective Federation). Note: Masculine gender assumes feminine gender and singular number assumes plural number whenever necessary in all the preceding parts.


The following should be used.
» Posts
» Strings
» Measuring Tape (steel)
» Stop Watches (Two on each ground)
» Two rings having inner diameter of nine cms. and ten cms. respectively
» Score Sheet Performance Count
» Time Placard (To Indicate Time Elapsed In A Turn), one to eight in minutes
» Red and Yellow Card.
» Marking Powder ( lime powder )
» Tables & chairs for the officials and players/coaches/managers

stand at the post

Stance of the defender at the post is suitable for making a choice of running in either of the halves. A runner stands on toes a couple of feet away in the half of the first seated chaser facing line, joining the point where runner takes position and post-base would make an angle of about 300 with central-lane with

nearest foot to the post should be in free zone, a distant one should be on the post-line, slight bend in knees and waist and concentrates the rear foot of the chaser on the first cross lane.

Runner faces active chaser, holds post by the palm of the streched hand nearest to the post slightly bends in elbow. There would be normal distance between the legs of runner which gives him very stable posture. 
A runner attentively observes the movements of active chaser. If kho-kho is given, his holding of post helps him going round the post in opposite half by pulling the post and using sideward stepping and if active chaser, without giving kho, decides to chase by going round the post, defender runs away from him in the half he has taken his posture by pushing the post. Avoid the watching movements of hands or legs of the chaser. Defender
should be very alert to face the chasing skills of Judgement Kho, Pole Dive etc.

What is the most advantageous style of defender standing at the pole? The following figure shows the perfect stance defender takes at the pole.
  1. A defender should fully concentrate his attention on an attacker in action behind the first sitting chaser.
  2. A defender should keep a suitable distance in between his steps, normally about a foot, with a sole of foot nearer the pole resting behind the pole line while the other sole resting in the court where first sitting chaser is facing. (See picture).
  3. A defender holds a pole by the palm of the hand nearest to pole.
  4. The standing posture with a slight bend at the waist is preferred.


A highly skilled way of defence. A difficult skill to master. Perfect foot-work, swiftness and excellance in reflexes, sharp eyes, intelligence, and ability to respond instantaneously to the changing situation, are constantly demanded. Pace of the chase is considerably slowed down enabling the defender to defend at ease. In this defence the attacker is not on the back of the Defender but is boldly faced, rather challenged, face to face by the Defender.

The Defender dodges and/or feints till he is safe from an attacker. Then he either tries to go beyond the attacker or crosses the Central Lane from the face of the fourth chaser. This backward run is rather angled, constantly facing the attacker. After crossing the Central Lane the Defender turns the face and repeats the process in a manner that almost a circular ring path is carved between four players or Cross Lanes.

Depending upon the place where the defender starts the game, the types can be named 'WIDE OPEN OR OPEN' OR LONG RING type is played at a dead slow pace and begins nearer a side line and equally nearer to a Cross Lane of the first player in the ring. 'SEMICLOSE' or Medium Ring is faster paced and begins before or on the Cross Lane of the second player in the ring. 'Close' or Short Ring is fastest and encircles the middle two of the four in the ring. It begins beyond the Cross Lane of the second player.

In the three cases crossing the Central Lane is near, at half way and further from the fourth player in the ring towards the third player in the ring. Defender must ensure that the 'Kho' to the fourth seated chaser is dropped by an attacker. This will only allow him to complete the ring. If 'Kho' is given to the 2nd seated chaser, the ring should be started from the 3rd player in the ring as first player, reversing the direction of backward run. The game can be played clockwise or otherwise with the help of feinting and 'face dupe turn' or back dupe turn skill. In this skill even Post can be used as a fourth player. This skill is used by defender to slow down the speed of the chase.

defence! Remember

  • LISTEN to the 'Kho' before tracing the route further.
  • AVOID single chain defence near the Post (Adjustment Two chasers).
  • Do not PLAY chain defence from the face of the seated chaser.
  • REDUCE speed after crossing the Central Lane and pause at the back of the next seated chaser to listen the Kho and ensure it.
  • AVOID standing close to the Post.
  • WATCH closely the Attacker on the first cross lane, from post, when at post.
  • FEINTING or duping is useful only when an attacker is almost on your heels or very nearer
  • Do not INCREASE the speed of the chase by your running. Keep the constent & safe distance between you and attacker (safe means atleast a cross lane distance.)
  • It is DANGEROUS to go to Post from the back of the adjucent chaser
  • PREVAIL over the Judgement Kho by watching the attacker clamly and cooly. Concentrate on the rear leg of an attacker.
  • POST is the dangerous point for all chain games. Reach to the post quickly and take a stance at post quickly.
  • AVOID too much LIFT of the legs and USE steps to AVOID tapping
  • START playing 'game in four' or ring game defence, if trapped in 'two on Post' position or clubbing, OR the one on the Post must run away before the second defender is pushed towards the Post and as soon as the second seated chaser from the Post gets a 'Kho'
  • Inactive defender should move to the opposite direction of the chase within 2nd to 5th Cross Lanes with side ward stepping and cautiously.
  • AVOID action by Officials. Refrain from showing resentment in any manner over the decisions of Officials.


Preliminary preparation for defence

In an earlier chapter we have discussed the contest between chasers and defenders in the game of khokho. We have seen rules that constrain chasers, viz. rules of directions, requirements of ideal kho, etc. Another important rule prohibits chaser to cross the central lane. The game of defence is mainly designed to take advantage of these bindings of the rules to chasers. A simple logic of defenders is 'be always in the opposite court to the one that the attacker occupies'. Since the attacker can not cross the central lane, he is forced to go round the pole to catch a defender or give a kho to a sitting chaser facing opposite court to the one attacker belongs.

The second rule of thumb is that 'stay away from an attacker'. If the game happens to be in the central part of the ground, the second option of giving kho is suitable for an attacker. On execution of such a kho, the attacker and the defender come in the same court for a brief period of time. As per the guidelines stated above, a defender changes the court and runs towards a pole in chosen direction. The attacker reacts by giving a kho to a suitable sitting chaser and so on. Thus the game continues. A few convenient ways and locations of changing the court and forming routes towards the pole have emerged from the experience, observations and thinking of khokho players over a period of several decades which have now acquired a status of a tradition. The thinking behind these acts and its suitability is explained below.

When an attacker and defender happen to be in the same court, the defender changes the court. A tip for changing the court is that the defender should cross the central lane from behind the sitting chaser so that if the concerned sitting chaser gets a kho, the defender will find himself away from a new attacker by a distance between the two consecutive cross lanes. On the other hand, if a defender crosses the central lane from the front side of sitting chaser; he will find himself in front of or near the subsequent sitting chaser who is suitably positioned to get the next kho. Such proximity may make the defender to surrender a point to the chasing team. The following picture makes the idea clear.

Another tip to a defender is that when he crosses the central lane, he needs to watch the attacker's actions. The best location to watch an attacker is near the back of the very next sitting chaser after crossing the central lane. This would enable a defender to know whether an attacker is giving a hind kho or a forward kho. The defender needs to know it in order to decide his further course of action. While watching a kho, a defender needs to take care that the attacker does not touch him from the opposite court.

A defender needs to take a pause/stop in his run towards a pole and see the choice of 'kho' (hind-kho or forward kho) made by an attacker. In case, a hind kho is given by an attacker, the defender needs to accelerate his run towards the pole in the earlier chosen direction as the attacker and defender are in the same court. In case, a forward kho is given by an attacker, the defender would change his running direction opposite to the original one, towards the other pole. The defender, subsequently, would change the court at a suitable part of the ground.

If a defender is running fast while crossing the court, it becomes difficult for him to stop and take a pause near the back of the subsequent sitting chaser after crossing the central lane. In case he can not control his speed, he goes beyond the back of nearest sitting chaser, then he may become an easy victim to the next sitting chaser as he would be facing the court to which the defender belongs. A lesson to learn from this is that running fast can be disadvantageous to a defender on certain occasions in khokho. A tip, therefore, is that defenders need to run with a full control over a speed and a directional movement.

In summary, the basic guide-lines for a beginner of defence in khokho are
  1. Defender tries to be in the opposite court to the one wherefrom the attacker chases.
  2. For changing the court, defender crosses the central lane from behind the sitting chaser.
  3. Immediately after crossing the central lane, a defender takes a pause at the back of the next sitting chaser and watches the actions of an attacker.
  4. A defender decides his course of action depending on the action taken by an attacker.
  5. A defender should learn to run with a controlled speed and directional movements.
  6. The defenders in a batch, other than the one being chased by opponents, also take positions behind the sitting chaser, preferably forth defender from each pole and at a distance of two third width of the court from central lane.

Earlier it is mentioned that a defender is partially trapped at the pole. A defender is always vulnerable at the pole unless he develops the skill to overcome such trapping. How to get out of partial trap at the pole? This is a very crucial question because once the defender escapes from this trap, khokho structure is in defender's favour to play long innings.

What is the most advantageous style of defender standing at the pole? The following figure shows the perfect stance defender takes at the pole.
  1. A defender should fully concentrate his attention on an attacker in action behind the first sitting chaser.
  2. A defender should keep a suitable distance in between his steps, normally about a foot, with a sole of foot nearer the pole resting behind the pole line while the other sole resting in the court where first sitting chaser is facing. (See picture).
  3. A defender holds a pole by the palm of the hand nearest to pole. 4) The standing posture with a slight bend at the waist is preferred.

Basic but strenuous skill of defence. However, it should not be the main defence skill. Should be brought into play either after exhaustion or mixed with other skills. A 'Defender' entering from the backside of each successive chaser, when the preceding chaser gets a Kho engraves a chain like design. Thus came to be known a 'SINGLE CHAIN'. Defender should not complete the chain from behind the adjecent two chasers from post, but goes to the post straight from 7th lane. It is essential to be as close to the back of the seated chaser as possible. Pausing behind the seated chaser and listening the 'Kho' is unavoidable.

Defender has to change direction and speed more or less at every next moment. Aspirants, if master this skill in the begining, their reflexes are highly improved. Other skills can then be developed and mastered easily. Short steps runners can employ this skill easily.

It is easy to visualize that these tips make it convenient for a defender to enter in either of the courts smoothly and without any time lapse in physical movement's adjustments. If the first sitting chaser gets a kho or action kho, a defender immediately brings his palm of the second hand in action to hold the pole and goes round the pole in the court opposite to the court of the new attacker.

If, on the other hand, an attacker prefers not to give kho and comes round the pole to catch a defender; defender has a distinct advantage that he is partly in the court where he wants to run. He saves the time for going round the pole. This advantage makes it difficult for an attacker to catch a defender. Another tip of caution to a defender is that he should take care that either a sitting chaser on square one, after getting kho or an attacker does not attempt a pole dive to catch him. Once a defender acquires the skill of getting out of trap at the pole, he becomes capable of playing long defence innings.
A route defence

As the title of the skill suggests, a defender decides his route between the poles and defends himself by running on the same route repeatedly. It is mentioned above that if a defender crosses a central lane by going past the back of a sitting defender, he maintains a safe distance between him and chasers. Based on this guide line, a traditional route is developed for safe defence, called 'A route defence' or 'A double chain defence' or 'a 3-6-9 route defence'. (See picture) The middle name has its origin in the observation that defender going from one pole to another and his returning to the starting pole forms a chain of three loops for which the defender crosses the central lane twice between the poles. The third name is self explanatory as the defender crosses the central lane by going past the chasers' backs sitting at squares number 3,6 and pole as if it was the 9th square.

It may so happen that the chaser on the third square is facing the court where a defender is positioned. In that case, the defender needs to adjust his 'route' by crossing the central lane by going past the back of chaser sitting on square two, followed by another change of court by crossing the central lane by going past the back of chaser sitting on square three which brings him on the predetermined route.

Alternatively, there can be other adjustments like 4-5-6-9, or after going past the back of the chaser sitting on square four, a defender may directly go to the pole. Some times another route defence is adopted by skilled defenders in which a defender goes round the pole and changes the court immediately by crossing the central lane going past the back of chaser sitting on square one. The next change of court would be by crossing the central lane going past the back of chaser sitting on square four followed by a run directly to opposite pole. Thus, a route is named as '1-4-9 route of defence'

Two important points need to be mentioned here.
  1. A route with change of court after going past the backs of successive chasers needs the development of a special skill.
  2. The change of court of more than three defenders should have a lower priority as it is likely to increases the speed of chase.

It is important to change the court by crossing the central lane by going past the back of the chaser sitting on square six as the defender reaches the pole by keeping the safe distance between him and the attacker. The chaser sitting on square 7 also faces the opposite court and therefore it may be thought that after 3 & 6 the defender crossing the court by going past the back of the chaser sitting on square 7 would suit the defence. It is not so. If it is executed and the chaser on square 7 gets a kho, the defender does not get enough ground to make adjustments in his 'route'. In fact, every defender is instructed never to cross the court from behind the chaser on square 7.

After crossing the court by going past the back of chaser on 6th square, the defender is expected to go towards the pole but not directly. If a chaser on square 6 directly attempts to catch a defender without giving kho to a chaser on square 7, it is convenient for the defender to cross the court from the gap in between the pole and the chaser on square 8. A chaser is forced to go round the pole as he is prevented to cross the central lane by the rules of the game, thus, a defender gets an advantage in terms of covering less ground and crosses over to the opposite court earlier.

In fact, this is the only occasion where a defender is recommended to cross the central lane from the front of a sitting chaser. In fact, every time a defender goes towards a pole, he is advised to prepare for crossing the central lane from the space in between the pole and the chaser on square 8. However, if chasers manage to give kho on square 7, the defender, instead of crossing over to the opposite court may go to a pole and continue his defence with a normal strategy.

The chasing team tries to disturb the route defence described above by giving forward khos. The counter strategy of the defenders is to take a stop near the back of a sitting chaser next to the one on the 'route'. In case of forward kho, the defender changes his direction, makes adjustments and continues his route defence in the opposite direction.

Few difficulties arise in the counter strategy. Since the defender runs a distance of almost three lanes before crossing over to the opposite court, he gathers considerable momentum. It makes him difficult to stop at the back of a sitting chaser and immediately change the direction of defence, in case of forward kho. Moreover, while making adjustments for establishing the route in opposite direction, the defender needs to cross the central lane from the gap in between the consecutive sitting chasers. Such cross over of courts needs a special skill which every defender must acquire if a route defence is to be applied.

Here is an example of how the chasers can thwart counter strategy by giving forward kho In a double chain defence, a defender crosses the central lane by going past the chaser on square 6. The Chaser, instead of giving kho to the chaser on square 6 gives a forward kho to the chaser on square 8.

The defender, taking pause at the back of the chaser on square 7, marks the forward kho and changes his direction of running, crosses the central lane immediately after going past the chaser on square 7 in forward direction, (which is the same as the chaser on square 2 in backward direction); takes a pause at the back of the chaser on square 6 of forward direction (square 3 of backward direction). If the chaser on square 7 gets a kho, the defender once again crosses the central lane going past the chaser on square 6 of forward direction and then continues his defence of 3-6-9 in the backward direction, thus making forward kho futile.

In fact, there is another version of modified 'route defence' which is routinely being used by defenders who have specialized in this skill, called 'single chain defence'.
Single chain defence

In this version of route defence, defender crosses over to an opposite court every time he goes past the back of sitting chaser up to the chaser sitting on square 6. After going past the back of the chaser on square 6, he directly goes towards the pole, unless the chaser on square 6 after getting kho prefers to directly chase him rather than giving kho to a chaser on square 7. In that case, the defender may cross over to the opposite court from the gap in between chaser on square 8 and pole. The advantages of such a cross over to the opposite court have been discussed above. A general route of single chain defence is shown in the following figure. (Normal single chain defence is shown by red line. The case of forward kho is shown by blue line)

If a defender has adapted to the single chain defence, tactically, it is the normal practice that the opponent team tries to break the 'route' by giving a forward kho. The defender can still continue to play the single chain defence by changing his direction. As an example, where a chaser on square 4, instead of giving kho to a chaser on square 5 gives a forward kho to a chaser on square 7; a defender reacts to this by changing his direction and then a general route of single chain defence in the changed direction is also shown in the above given figure.

There are some distinct advantages of playing the single chain defence over the double chain defence. The foremost among those is that chasers are forced to give many khos. Since many fouls are related to the actions while giving kho, the possibility of fouls rises; lowering the speed and rhythm of the chase. Also, a defender is vulnerable to get out near the pole. In the game of the single chain defence, a defender spends more time in the mid court avoiding the pole. However, defenders must be aware that the single chain defence game needs special skills apart from the qualities like suppleness of the body, fast reflexes, etc.

A defender should be able to adjust his stepping/footwork to the maximum exactitude. Also, the careful application of the 'Palati or Directional deception' proves to be very effective. It is very difficult to play the single chain defence game in fast chase with fewer fouls. In case a defender finds difficulty in adjusting his stepping, he may switch over to the double chain defence without any difficulty. For beginners, the double chain defence is much easier to adapt. Incidentally, the single chain defence is more frequently used by women khokho players..
Double chain defence

Most popular and basic way to defend though involves continuous running. It gives more stability, it is more safe and comfortable. A defender is able to keep himself at a safe distance and run along a well-laid route. This is also useful to test the speed, style of chase and also the ground condition.

There are several routs, but the basic fibre has remained the same. Two chasers are in a loop that is formed, when a defender traverses the route. However the perfect , almost flawless, a widely deployed common route is 3, 6, 9 or Post. The 'Defender' crosses the Central Lane twice from behind the seated chasers 3 and 6 while moving towards the Post. He repeats the route from opposite end unless the chasers force him to change it if it is so defender use the rout 2,3,6,9 or Post. He goes to the Post after enter from behind the 3rd chaser from the Post.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

turning the post

This is the action of prime importance in the game of kho-kho as chasers can utilise it to their advantage.
'Turning the post' consists of :
- Accelarating oneself by pulling the post;
- Swiftly turning the post and realising the same in one action.

Some of the 'do's and 'dont's of turning round the post are :
  • Hold the post conveniently at lower heights.
  • Palms should come from opposite direction to hold the post and should be one above the other and hands bending slightly in elbow.
  • Action of turning round not occure at very near the post or much away from post. Turning foot has to be 8" away from the post and slightly bend in knee and the other leg should be up in the air 90° angle


Another of those rare skills adopted by the chasers which demands balance of body as well as mind, ability to sprint with great velocity and check the speed, almost coming to a halt, after hitting the target.The skill must be used very sparingly as 'timing' is most important.A defender moving traverse moving traverse

to the direction of chasing, to cross the Central Lane or just running ahead may be within the sprinting distance of an attacker, but if the attacker tries to put out the defender by mere tagging, foul may be committed at the Central Lane or the defender may escape by fraction of a second and with a few inches to cover by. Therefore, by accelerating the speed an attacker covers up the distance and by bending extends his hand as long as possible to tap i.e. just touch the heel of the defender which at that time is nearest to him

An attacker while getting up; and in full speed or immediately after turning around the Post can use the skill of dive. It is effective more on slower defenders and 'game in four' type defence and in sudden attack.
Very few players use it as it involves fine judgement of speed of the defender, the distance to be covered and the confidence to execute it without causing injury and reduction in the speed of the chase. It requires hight tone of flexibility and swing.

Duping is another of those instincts comes that naturally. 'Dupe turning' is creating an impression on the mind of an attacker about the direction of the run by a Defender and running away in exactly opposite direction. Co-ordination of mind and body reflexes of a very high order are demanded. Feinting is constantly used.
There are two major types of this skill. In one case the Defender takes an attacker on to his face and in the other on the back. In both cases the basic factors, as explained above are same. Both the types are sub-divided into many more types. There is no specific place or situation wherein the skill is used. Legs, hands, looks are all involved alongwith legs with which you dodge waist part is more important as feint dupe is generated through waist. Therefore swift, smooth and quick movement of waist is very important alongwith excellent footwork, sense of timing and patience.
The skill is pregnant with full danger of misjudgement in leading the attacker to a wrong direction and getting out.